No, a cat sharpening its claws is purely instinctual. Also, cats have scent glands on the pads of their feet. When they scratch, they are also “marking their territory” by leaving their scent.
Cats can be trained to sharpen their claws in appropriate areas by strategically placing a variety of scratching posts (both vertical and horizontal varieties) around the home and gently redirecting them when you catch them in the act of scratching somewhere unapproved.
Ideally, you will offer your cat a “right” place to scratch in every room of your home!